The opinion of the court was delivered by: Shira A. Scheindlin, U.S.D.J.
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
This class action was brought pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983 to challenge the alleged failure by the State of New York to: (1) determine whether indicated instances of child abuse and/or maltreatment are relevant and reasonably related ("R&R") to child-related employment and/or other child-related activities; and (2) use objective guidelines in conducting R&R reviews. On March 15, 2012, the parties executed a Stipulation of Settlement of a Class Action and Order (the "Stipulation") that seeks to conclude this class action litigation. Following the Court's preliminary approval of the proposed settlement,*fn1 plaintiffs now move for final approval of the class action settlement (the "Settlement"). A fairness hearing was held on June 20, 2012, at which one objection was raised, discussed and dismissed. For the reasons stated below, plaintiffs' motion for final approval of the Settlement is granted.
Plaintiffs originally sought certification of the following class, consisting of all persons who are or will be the subjects of "indicated" reports with the State Central Register and who have timely requested, or will timely request, a "422" or "424-a" amendment or expungement of the Report and who have not had, or will not have, their Reports administratively reviewed to determine whether the Report is reasonably related to employment or licensure in the child care field.
Pursuant to the Stipulation, the parties agreed to the following slightly modified class definition:
A class is certified consisting of all persons who, after the effective date of this Stipulation, timely request review of indicated reports of child abuse or maltreatment pursuant to Social Services Law § 424-a.*fn2 This Court hereby finally certifies this action as a class action on behalf of the Class as defined above.
The publication of notice of the Fairness Hearing has been given to the Class, pursuant to and in the manner directed by the Preliminary Approval Order, proof of the mailing of the Notice was filed with the Court by Class Counsel, and a full opportunity to be heard has been offered to all Parties, the Class, and persons in interest. The form and manner of the Notice is hereby determined to have been the best notice practicable under the circumstances and to have been given in full compliance with each of the requirements of Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
III. APPROVAL OF SETTLEMENT
I find that the proposed Settlement is fair, adequate, and reasonable and in the best interests of the Class. Initially, a strong presumption of fairness attaches because the Settlement was reached by experienced counsel after extensive arm's length negotiations.*fn3 In addition, most of the Grinnell factors weigh in favor of approving the Settlement.*fn4
First, the complexity, expense, and duration of the litigation justify the Settlement. The litigation would likely be lengthy and relatively expensive as it would involve complex issues of constitutional law.Second, the reaction of the class weighs in favor of the Settlement -- only one objection was made by a person outside of the Class, which this Court found to be without merit. Third, the stage of proceedings favors the Settlement -- although there has been no formal discovery, plaintiffs' counsel has done an adequate factual investigation to be thoroughly apprised of the merits of the case. Fourth, plaintiffs' counsel faced risks in establishing liability given that the constitutional questions presented in this litigation covered unchartered territory.
The Fifth factor -- the risk of establishing damages -- is inapplicable as the relief requested was purely injunctive in nature. Sixth, the risk of maintaining the class action through the trial favors the Settlement as the risk of de-certification of the class, albeit remote, was always present. The Seventh factor -- the ability of the defendants to withstand a greater judgment -- does not apply given that injunctive relief only was requested. Also inapplicable are the Eighth and Ninth factors because there was no settlement fund here. In sum, all of the relevant factors weigh in favor of the Settlement.
In the Stipulation, defendants agreed to pay plaintiff's counsel $300,000 in attorneys' fees and costs.*fn5 In class actions where the only relief obtained is injunctive in nature, "courts often use a lodestar calculation because there is no way to ...