The opinion of the court was delivered by: Naomi Reice Buchwald United States District Judge
Plaintiffs Ana B. Duarte and Jessica Rosa (collectively, "plaintiffs") bring this action against Tri-State Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, P.C. ("Tri-State"), ElectroDiagnostic and Physical Medicine, P.C. ("ElectroDiagnostic"), Eric Jacobson, and Orsuville G. Cabotu (collectively, "defendants"), alleging violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 29 U.S.C. § 201 et seq., as amended (the "FLSA"), and the New York Labor Law (the "NYLL"). Specifically, plaintiffs allege that defendants failed to pay overtime compensation and "spread of hours" wages as required under the FLSA and/or NYLL. Duarte also alleges that defendants unlawfully retaliated against her for having engaged in protected activity under the statutes.
Two motions by defendants are presently before the Court. In their first motion, defendants move for judgment on the pleadings with regard to Duarte's retaliation claims as well as all of plaintiffs' claims against Jacobson and Cabotu. In their second motion, defendants move for summary judgment, requesting that the Court dismiss plaintiffs' claims to the extent that those claims are asserted as a collective or class action on behalf of similarly situated individuals.
For the reasons stated below, defendants' motion for judgment on the pleadings is granted in part and denied in part, and defendants' motion for summary judgment is denied in its entirety.
Tri-State is an outpatient healthcare business located in the Bronx, New York. (Defs.' Summ. J. Mem., Ex. 3.) Jacobson is the owner and sole director of Tri-State. (Id., Exs. 1, 3.) Although Tri-State was incorporated in 1997, Jacobson suspended the company's operations in 2001 and only resumed the business in March 2009. (Id., Ex. 3.) Since the latter date, Tri-State has employed twenty-seven individuals in administrative positions similar to those held by plaintiffs.*fn2 (Id., Ex. 7.)
ElectroDiagnostic is also an outpatient healthcare business and shares its business space with Tri-State. (Id., Ex. 4.) Cabotu is the owner and sole director of ElectroDiagnostic. (Id., Ex. 2.) The company became operational in 2008 and since that time has employed twenty individuals in administrative positions. (Id., Exs. 4, 7.)
While Tri-State and ElectroDiagnostic have employed twenty-seven and twenty individuals in administrative positions, respectively, fourteen of these employees have worked for both companies, albeit at different points in time. (Id.) Thus, there are only thirty-three specific individuals who have worked in administrative positions for Tri-State and/or ElectroDiagnostic during the periods relevant to this suit. (Id.)
Rosa was employed by ElectroDiagnostic as an administrative and medical assistant from December 2009 until October 2010. (FAC ¶ 39.) Rosa alleges that during her tenure with ElectroDiagnostic, she typically worked six days each work for an average of forty-nine to fifty-one hours per week. (Id.) Rosa claims that she was paid the same hourly wage for every hour she worked. (Id.)
Duarte was employed by Tri-State as an administrative assistant from October 2009 until February 2011. (Id. ¶ 38.) Immediately prior to her employment with Tri-State, Duarte had worked for ElectroDiagnostic for two weeks in a similar capacity. (Defs.' Summ. J. Mem., Ex. 4.) Duarte alleges that during her employment with Tri-State, she typically worked five days each week for an average of forty-five to fifty-five hours per week and that, like Rosa, she was paid the same hourly wage for every hour she worked. (FAC ¶ 38.) Duarte further alleges that she was discharged by Tri-State because she had begun to inquire of fellow employees whether they were being paid proper overtime compensation. (Id. ¶¶ 89, 100; Duarte Decl. ¶¶ 21-22.)
I.Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings
Defendants' first motion pertains to Duarte's federal and state retaliation claims as well as plaintiffs' claims against individual defendants Jacobson and Cabotu. Although defendants style this motion as a motion to dismiss pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6), such a motion is procedurally barred because defendants filed their answer to the amended complaint prior to filing the motion. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b) (requiring that a Rule 12(b) motion be brought before the responsive pleading is filed). Under these circumstances, we are to construe the motion as a motion for judgment on the pleadings pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(c). See Patel v. Contemporary Classics of Beverly Hills, 259 F.3d 123, 126 (2d Cir. 2001).
"The standard for granting a Rule 12(c) motion for judgment on the pleadings is identical to that of a Rule 12(b)(6) motion for failure to state a claim." Id. The Court must accept as true all factual allegations in the complaint and draw all reasonable inferences in the plaintiff's favor. Id. Nonetheless, "[f]actual allegations must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level, on the assumption that all the allegations in the complaint are true." Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007) (internal citation and footnote omitted). Ultimately, plaintiffs must allege "enough facts to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face." Id. at 570. If plaintiffs "have not nudged their claims across the line from conceivable to plausible, their complaint must be dismissed." Id. This pleading standard applies in "all civil actions." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 684 (2009) (internal quotation marks omitted).
1.FLSA Retaliation Claims
The FLSA makes it unlawful "to discharge or in any other manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed any complaint or instituted . . . any proceeding under or related to this chapter, or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or has served or is about to serve on an industry committee." 29 U.S.C. § 215(a)(3). Although (somehow) not briefed by the parties, the question of what forms of conduct qualify as protected activity under this provision is central to the resolution of defendants' motion.
In Lambert v. Genesee Hospital, 10 F.3d 46, 55 (2d Cir. 1993), the Second Circuit interpreted the FLSA's anti-retaliation provision to be limited in its reach, holding that it proscribed only retaliation that occurs after an employee has complained of a potential violation to a government authority. The Lambert court specifically noted that the FLSA does not extend protection to internal complaints lodged with one's employer. See id. ("The plain language of this provision . . . does not encompass complaints made to a supervisor."); see also Nicolaou v. Horizon Media, Inc., 402 F.3d 325, 328 (2d Cir. 2005) ("In [Lambert], this Court held that Section 15(a)(3) of [the] FLSA does not apply to retaliation taken in response to internal complaints . . . .").
The Supreme Court recently addressed the scope of the anti-retaliation provision in Kasten v. Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics Corp., 131 S. Ct. 1325, 1336 (2011). The Court held that protected activity under the FLSA is not limited to formal written complaints but may also include oral communications. See id. However, the Court expressly refrained from deciding whether intracompany complaints may constitute protected activity under the statute, or whether, as held in Lambert, such complaints are outside of the statute's reach. See id. (stating "no view on the merits" of the issue); see also Minor v. Bostwick Labs., Inc., 669 F.3d 428, 433 n.5 (4th Cir. 2012) (finding that Kasten did not resolve this debate). Given this express reservation, the holding of Lambert vis-a-vis intracompany complaints remains binding precedent on this Court. See Hyunmi Son v. Reina Bijoux, Inc., 823 F. Supp. 2d 238, 243-44 (S.D.N.Y. 2011) (holding same); Ryder v. Platon, No. 11 Civ. 4292 (JFB)(ARL), 2012 WL 2317772, at *7-8 (E.D.N.Y. June 19, 2012) (holding same).
Here, Duarte alleges that defendants retaliated against her "because she began inquiring about not being paid her overtime hours." (FAC ¶ 89.) It is dispositive that Duarte provides no indication that she ever complained of the alleged improper ...