Defendant Jabar Gilliam moves to suppress evidence obtained as a result of two incidents: the Maryland State Police's ("MSP") receipt of Gilliam's cell phone records from his cellular provider without a warrant and his warrantless arrest by the New York Police Department ("NYPD").
A sixteen year-old girl was reported missing by the Sheriff of Fredrick County, Maryland on November 30, 2011. An investigation was opened in which MSP quickly joined. In the course of this investigation, the sheriff contacted the girl's foster mother who indicated that she associated with a 29-year-old man named "Jabar," now alleged to be Gilliam. MSP also contacted the girl's biological mother in California who informed them that she had been in touch with her daughter by phone. The mother indicated that, through these conversations, she had learned that Gilliam had taken her daughter from Maryland to New York City where he was forcing her to work as a prostitute. MSP also contacted the girl's social worker who expressed similar concerns and found the mother's information to be very credible.
Based on this information, on December 2, 2011, MSP contacted Gilliam's cellphone provider, Sprint, to request Gilliam's call records containing cell site information as well as information about his precise location. MSP described their need for this information as arising from an exigent situation involving "immediate danger of death or serious bodily injury" involving the prostitution of a missing child. Sprint complied and supplied MSP with Gilliam's cellphone records through the night of December 1, 2011.
Meanwhile, the girl continued to call her biological mother, at one point calling her from Gilliam's phone. The victim's mother relayed this information and Gilliam's phone number to MSP. MSP then ascertained the street address associated with this phone number, which was an address in the Bronx.
MSP then notified the FBI, who relayed this information to NYPD.
That afternoon, NYPD went to the Bronx address listed for Gilliam's phone number. There they met a woman who identified herself as Gilliam's mother. Gilliam was not at that address, but he was close by. Using the precision location data obtained from Sprint, NYPD was able to locate and observe Gilliam and the victim together on the street a few blocks away, and they saw the two entering an apartment building.
NYPD followed the two to the third floor of the apartment building where they confronted Gilliam. As NYPD Detective Ryan began handcuffing him, however, Gilliam broke free and fled through a nearby apartment door. Detective Ryan pursued Gilliam, who slammed the apartment door on Detective Ryan's foot. Soon thereafter, however, other officers located Gilliam in the apartment and arrested him for the suspected assault of Detective Ryan.
NYPD officers removed items from the apartment belonging to both Gilliam and the victim, but did not examine them until they had obtained a warrant. While in custody, Gilliam knowingly waived his Miranda rights and made statements to NYPD officers. He also consented to a search of his cell phone. NYPD subsequently obtained warrants to search the other evidence obtained from the apartment and Gilliam's person. Gilliam was subsequently re-arrested for sex trafficking.
On December 15, 2011, Gilliam was charged in a two count, federal court indictment with sex trafficking of a minor for the purposes of prostitution in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1591(a), (b)(1), and (b)(2) as well as 18 U.S.C. 2423(a).
Gilliam moved on April 6, 2012 to suppress evidence stemming from his December 2, 2011 arrest. He then moved, on June 22, 2012, to suppress evidence developed due to MSP's receipt of phone records from Sprint.