The opinion of the court was delivered by: Glenn T. Suddaby, United States District Judge
MEMORANDUM-DECISION and ORDER
Currently before the Court, in this negligence and breach-of-contract action filed by Northbrook NY LLC ("Plaintiff") against Lewis & Clinch, Inc. ("Defendant"), is Defendant's motion for summary judgment. (Dkt. No. 21.) For the reasons set forth below, Defendant's motion is granted in part and denied in part.
Plaintiff filed its Complaint in this diversity-jurisdiction action on July 10, 2009. (Dkt. No. 1.) Plaintiff subsequently filed an Amended Complaint on December 7, 2009. (Dkt. No. 12 [Plf.'s Am. Compl.].) Generally, Plaintiff's Amended Complaint alleges as follows.
Plaintiff owns and operates a hydroelectric facility located on the Black River in Glen Park, New York, known as the Glen Park Hydroelectric Project ("the Project"). (Id. at ¶ 7.) The Project consists of three hydro turbine units, which are identified numerically as units 1, 2, and 3 ("Unit 1," "Unit 2," and "Unit 3"). (Id. at ¶ 8.) Each hydro turbine unit is powered by the controlled flow of river water through the turbine and over the turbine's runner blades. (Id.) After passing over the runner blades, the water exits through the draft tube into what is called the "tail race," and returns to the river. (Id.) Within the tail race exists a draft tube gate that may be closed to isolate the turbine from the river. (Id.)
The amount of water entering the turbine is controlled by opening, closing, or otherwise adjusting the size of the opening of the turbine's wicket gates. (Id. at ¶ 9.) The wicket gates can be turned to enlarge (open) or reduce (close) the wicket-gate opening through which water may enter the turbine. (Id.) The size of the opening of the wicket gates determines the rate at which the water flows into the turbine. (Id.)
The position of each individual wicket gate is controlled by a mechanism that includes an actuator arm and a keyless, shaft-hub locking device called a "Ringfeder." (Id. at ¶ 10.) A properly tightened Ringfeder connects the actuator arm to the wicket gate shaft in a manner that allows movement of the actuator arm to turn the wicket gate. (Id. at ¶ 11.)
In addition, a properly tightened (and correctly applied) Ringfeder also acts as a safety device. (Id. at ¶ 12.) More specifically, should the wicket gate hang up or become obstructed or immobile, the Ringfeder is designed to give or slip to prevent overload, damage, or failure of the mechanism. (Id.) The wicket gates can be closed on command to prevent any water from flowing into turbine. (Id. at ¶ 13.)
Upon shutdown of a hydro turbine unit, or during a "trip," the wicket gates are commanded to close. Because this prevents water from entering the turbine, the turbine stops rotating. (Id. at ¶ 14.) The draft tube gates do not close during normal shutdowns or trips. (Id.)
On January 9, 2008, disturbances on the National Power Grid power lines tripped all three of the Project's hydro turbine units off-line ("the incident"). (Id. at ¶ 15.) Although Units 1 and 3 shut down normally, several wicket gates for Unit 2 failed to close, which allowed water to continue to flow through the turbine. (Id. at ¶ 16.) The continuous flow of water during the shutdown allowed the turbine to continue rotating, and caused the turbine's speed to dangerously increase. (Id.) An overspeed protection device within Unit 2 sensed the increasing turbine speed, which signaled the draft tube gate to close in an effort to stop the water and prevent a potentially catastrophic overspeed condition. (Id. at¶ 17.) The operation of the overspeed device, as well as the closing of the draft tube gates, ultimately shut down Unit 2. (Id. at ¶ 18.)
The wicket gates that failed to close did so because, although the actuator arms had moved to the "closed" position, the Ringfeders were too loose and slipped. (Id. at ¶ 19.)
Following the incident, while Units 1 and 3 restarted without issue, Unit 2 failed to restart. (Id. at ¶¶ 20-22.) Unit 2 could not restart until it was dewatered; however, this required the repair of the draft tube gate seals. (Id. at ¶ 23.) These draft tube gate seals were damaged when the draft tube gate was forced closed against the excessively high volume and velocity of water flowing through the open wicket gates during the incident. (Id.) After new draft tube gate seals were fabricated and installed, Unit 2 was repaired and returned to service on March 3, 2008. (Id. at ¶¶ 24-25.)
Approximately four months before the incident (specifically, between September 17, 2007, and September 25, 2007), Defendant performed a variety of mechanical services on Unit 2, including inspecting, cleaning, and adjusting the wicket gates, and removing, replacing, tightening, and adjusting every Ringfeder for each wicket gate. (Id. at ¶¶ 26-27.)
The work that Defendant performed on Unit 2 fell below the standard of care that Defendant owed Plaintiff, because Defendant improperly tightened the Ringfeders by leaving them too loose, which ultimately caused, among other things, the damage to the draft tube seals. (Id. at ¶¶ 32-36.) In addition, this failure to sufficiently tighten the Ringfeders violated the terms of the parties' contract, which called for the Ringfeders to be tightened and adjusted consistent with the manufacturer's instructions and specifications. (Id. at ¶¶ 38, 40.)
Based on all of these factual allegations, Plaintiff asserts two claims against Defendant--one for negligence and the other for breach of contract. (Id. at ¶¶ 31-43.) As relief, Plaintiff seeks $895,645.08 in damages, which constitutes $135,959.00 in property damage, and $759,686.08 in lost revenue. (Id. at ¶¶ 36, 43.)
B. Undisputed Material Facts
Unless stated otherwise, the following facts are undisputed by the parties, based on the current record. (Compare Dkt. No. 42 [Def.'s Statement of Material Facts] and Dkt. No. 58 [Def.'s Reply to Plf.'s Statements of Additional Material Facts] with Dkt. No. 56, Attach. 8 [Plf.'s Response to Def.'s Statement of Material Facts and Plf.'s Statements of Additional Material Facts].)
Plaintiff is the corporate owner of Unit 2.In August 2007, Plaintiff contracted for Defendant, a New York State corporation, to perform certain mechanical maintenance services on the Project through a phone call from Plaintiff's plant supervisor to Defendant's president.
Before entering into this contract, the parties had engaged in similar business transactions, all of which resulted in Defendant sending Plaintiff invoices that included, on the reverse-side of each invoice, General Terms and Conditions ("Terms and Conditions"). The Terms and Conditions were not negotiated between the parties. The face of the invoice does not indicate that the Terms and Conditions are located on the reverse-side. Plaintiff denies having any awareness of the existence of the Terms and Conditions before the dispute giving rise to this action arose.
Following completion of its work that is the subject of this litigation, Defendant sent an invoice to Plaintiff. Plaintiff paid the amount owed according to the invoice.
Defendant did not send Plaintiff any additional information or documentation (other than the invoices that were sent following completion of a job) that referenced or incorporated the Terms and Conditions that Defendant seeks to enforce in its defense of this action. Defendant also did not provide Plaintiff with "a voluntary choice" of paying an additional premium for the services on a graduated scale, proportional to the risk involved in the services rendered.
Finally, the general purpose of the draft tube gate seals is to prevent backflow of river water into the turbine casing and powerhouse, which allows this area to be made water-tight, pumped-down, ...