The opinion of the court was delivered by: Mae A. D'Agostino, U.S. District Judge:
MEMORANDUM-DECISION AND ORDER
Plaintiff TVC Albany, Inc. d/b/a Tech Valley Communications ("TVC") commenced the within action for monetary damages and injunctive relief asserting claims under the Filed Rate Doctrine and causes of action for breach of contract/agreement, defamation, tortious interference with contractual relationships, fraud, deceit and misrepresentation. (Dkt. No. 6). Plaintiff's claims arise from interstate and international telecommunications services TVC provided to defendants based on contract, federal and state law. The above-captioned cases have been designated as related cases by the Clerk of the Court. Presently before the Court is plaintiff's motion for a preliminary injunction pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 65 to restrain/prohibit defendants from disparaging or defaming plaintiff or engaging in publication of false and malicious information to the public or press regarding plaintiff. Plaintiff moves for a preliminary injunction in both actions. (Dkt. No. 7). Defendants have opposed the motion.
FACTUAL BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURAL HISTORY*fn1
TVC provides local exchange telephone services as a Competitive Local Exchange Carrier. TVC is also an Interchange Telecommunications Carrier ("IXC") which provides toll services in New York State. TVC provides toll (interstate and international) services to customers who are pre-subscribed to TVC's long-distance service. Long-distance calls dialed by pre-subscribed customers, or which originate on the facilities of pre-subscribed customers, are automatically routed to TVC's toll network. TVC also permits "casual use" callers to access TVC's network to make interstate and international calls by dialing the TVC access code from any landline telephone. A "causal use" customer utilizes TVC's services through interconnection with another local exchange company. The cost of the interstate or international call is then billed to the owner of the telephone line from where the call was made and the user of the line is deemed a customer of TVC responsible for the charges associated with "casual use" calls. Interstate and international telephone services are subject to the rules of the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC"). TVC has made all of its rates, terms, and conditions regarding the use of its network available on its website.
Kevin O'Connor is the Chief Executive Officer of TVC. Defendant
American Energy, Inc. ("American Energy") is a pre-subscribed customer
of TVC's long distance services. Defendant Jaime Thompson*fn2
("Thompson") is the president of American Energy. Defendant
Noe Street LLC d/b/a Best Cleaners ("Best Cleaners") is a casual-use
caller. Defendant Tim McCann ("T. McCann") is the president of Best
Cleaners. Defendant Catherine McCann ("C. McCann") is an agent of Best
TVC claims that American Energy and Best Cleaners installed their own telephone equipment on their premises and that TVC did not select or recommend such equipment. Plaintiff claims that the equipment may have the capability to allow calls to be originated from remote locations, routed through such equipment, and connected to TVC's toll service in the same manner as a call that originated from American Energy or Best Cleaner's premises. This arrangement, commonly known as "remote calling or remote PBX access" could allow a third person to have toll calls appear to originate on American Energy or Best Cleaner's terminal equipment.
TVC published the following items on their website: (1) TVC's Terms and Conditions for Interstate Toll Message Telecommunications Services; (2) TVC's International Long-Distance Service Guide; and (3) TVC's tariff, filed with the New York Public Service Commission ("P.S.C.").
On November 4, 2009, Thompson executed a written contract with TVC for local, interstate and international long-distance telephone and Internet services at American Energy's offices at 401 New Karner Road, Albany, New York. The term of the contract was 36 months. On November 4, 2009, Thompson executed a Change of Authorization with listed the "Area of Service" as "US".
On January 8, 2012, TVC's Chief Information Officer, James Reynolds ("Reynolds"), requested that TVC suspend American Energy's ability to make international calls based upon his suspicion of fraudulent activity. Due to the fact that January 8, 2012 was a Sunday, Reynolds suspended service without first notifying American Energy. On January 10, 2012, Reynolds claims that TVC notified American Energy that possible unauthorized calls were occurring and advised American Energy to take certain precautions in the event that such calls were unauthorized. Conversely, Thompson claims that American Energy discovered that it's telephone system had been compromised on January 10, 2012 and immediately contacted plaintiff.*fn3
TVC invoiced American Energy for interstate and international calls placed during the first week of January 2012 which originated on telephone lines belonging to American Energy in the amount of $200,353.50.*fn4 Thompson claims that American Energy was billed for 94,000 minutes of phone calls and that American Energy's normal usage was less than sixty minutes per month and that American Energy never dialed outside of the United States or Canada. American Energy reported the incident to the New York State Police and Thompson claims that Lieutenant Mark A. Brown of the Computer Crime Unit conducted an investigation.*fn5
Best Cleaners is not a TVC customer. C. McCann claims that Best Cleaners had no need for international calling services and took security precautions and implemented passwords and access codes. C. McCann claims that all calls to destinations out side of the United States, with the exception of calls to Europe and Canada, were blocked.
TVC claims that it notified Best Cleaners that possible unauthorized
calls were occurring and advised Best Cleaners to take certain
precautions in the event that such calls were unauthorized.*fn6
TVC claims that Best did not respond to the notification. The
calls were received over the lines used by Best Cleaners to access
TVC's services. TVC invoiced Best Cleaners for interstate and
international long-distance calls placed during the first week of
January 2012 which originated on telephone lines belonging to Best
Cleaners. The calls were placed on a "casual use" basis and amounted
to $146,921.29 in long-distance telephone charges.*fn7
C. McCann claims that on January 18, 2012, Reynolds advised that TVC's
PBX had been accessed to make calls to South Africa and that Best
would be responsible for the "astronomical bill". Reynolds denies that
such a conversation took place. On April 4, 2012, Best Cleaner's
counsel, Robert A. Lippman ("Lippman") sent a letter to plaintiff's
counsel, Carolyn Cole ("Cole") regarding the January 2012 invoice. The
letter indicates that the calls were made from telephone numbers that
Best does not own.
On September 25, 2012, plaintiff commenced the within actions. On September 28, 2012, the Albany Times Union published an article in the Business Section entitled, "The issue in hacking case: Who is liable". T. McCann and Thompson claim that they were approached by business people within the community and members of the Albany Entrepreneurs Organization ("EO") asking how they could assist Best ...