On October 26, 2012, the Court of Appeals handed down an opinion affirming certain injunctions entered by the District Court. These injunctions were designed to remedy Argentina's breach of the Pari Passu Clause, including the "Equal Treatment Provision," contained in the contractual provisions of the Fiscal Agency Agreement Bonds ("FAA Bonds") at issue in this litigation. This breach resulted from the fact that Argentina had issued new debt pursuant to exchange offers in 2005 and 2010 ("Exchange Bonds"), and was making the payments required on this new debt, but had declared that it would make no payments to those still holding the FAA Bonds. It is of note that the Court of Appeals affirmed the finding of the District Court that, although there had originally been a default on the FAA Bonds because of a well-known financial crisis, currently Argentina is able to make the payments on both the FAA Bonds owned by plaintiffs and the Exchange Bonds.
An essential part of the ruling of the Court of Appeals was to affirm the injunctive relief fashioned by the District Court. It ruled that Argentina must make appropriate payments to plaintiffs on their FAA Bonds concurrent with or in advance of any payments to holders of the 2005 and 2010 Exchange Bonds. However, the Court of Appeals remanded, directing that the District Court clarify precisely how the payment formula, regarding payments to plaintiffs, is intended to operate. Also, the Court of Appeals directed a more precise determination as to how the injunctions would apply to third parties, including intermediary banks.
On remand, the court has not only received briefs from plaintiffs and Argentina, but has also received briefs and letters from exchange bondholders, parties responsible for handling the payment process to these bondholders, and the Federal Reserve Bank. The court has considered these materials without requiring formal interventions.
The injunctions affirmed by the Court of Appeals are contained in an Order of the District Court dated February 23, 2012, which contains a number of injunction provisions and which is referred to by the Court of Appeals as the "Injunctions." Paragraph two of the Injunctions provides:
The Republic accordingly is permanently ORDERED to specifically perform its obligations to NML under Paragraph 1(c) of the FAA as follows:
a. Whenever the Republic pays any amount due under terms of the bonds or other obligations issued pursuant to the Republic's 2005 or 2010 Exchange Offers, or any subsequent exchange of or substitution for the 2005 and 2010 Exchange Offers that may occur in the future (collectively, the "Exchange Bonds"), the Republic shall concurrently or in advance make a "Ratable Payment" (as defined below) to NML.
b. Such "Ratable Payment" that the Republic is ORDERED to make to NML shall be an amount equal to the "Payment Percentage" (as defined below) multiplied by the total amount currently due to NML in respect of the bonds at issue in these cases (08 Civ. 6978, 09 Civ. 1707, and 09 Civ. 1708), including pre-judgment interest (the "NML Bonds").
c. Such "Payment Percentage" shall be the fraction calculated by
dividing the amount actually paid or which the Republic intends to pay under the terms of the Exchange Bonds by the total amount then due under the terms of the Exchange Bonds.
The Court of Appeals stated that it is unable to discern from the record precisely how this formula is intended to operate, and further stated:
It could be read to mean that if, for example, Argentina owed the holders of restructured debt $100,000 in interest and paid 100% of that amount then it would be required to pay the plaintiffs 100% of the accelerated principal and all accrued interest. Or it could be read to mean that, if such a $100,000 payment to the exchange bondholders represented 1% of the principal and interest outstanding on the restructured debt, then Argentina must pay plaintiffs 1% of the amount owed to them.
The following discussion is intended to provide the clarification requested by the Court of Appeals.
Although the provisions of the February 23, 2012 Injunctions regarding the "Ratable Payment" are phrased in a somewhat complicated manner, the actual meaning is quite straightforward. The obligation to plaintiffs under the February 23, 2012 Injunctions accrues whenever Argentina "pays any amount due" under the terms of the Exchange Bonds. The next time this will occur will be in December 2012, when Argentina is scheduled to make interest payments on the Exchange Bonds of about $3.14 billion: $42 million on December 2, $3 billion on December 15, and $100 million on December 31. When this occurs, Argentina will be required to make a "Ratable Payment" to plaintiffs. Assuming that Argentina pays 100% of what is then due on the Exchange Bonds, this is the "Payment Percentage" referred to in paragraph 2(b). Argentina would be required to pay 100% "multiplied by the total amount currently due" to plaintiffs. There is no question about what is "currently due" to plaintiffs. The amount that is currently due is the amount of the unpaid principal, the due date of which has been accelerated, and accrued interest.*fn1 The total of ...