United States District Court, S.D. New York
ORDER ADOPTING REPORT & RECOMMENDATION
PAUL A. CROTTY, District Judge.
Pro se Plaintiff Michel Toliver ("Plaintiff") brings this 42 U.S.C. § 1983 action against Detectives Jose Olmo and Carlos Sanchez (the "Defendants") of the New York City Police Department ("NYPD") Sex Offender Monitoring Unit ("SOMU"), alleging that on March 18, 2009, he was subject to a false arrest for failing to register as a sex offender in violation of the Sex Offender Registration Act, N.Y. Corr. Law § 168 et seq. ("SORA"). Toliver alleges Defendants arrested him without a warrant or probable cause.
On June 21, 2013;, Defendants moved for summary judgment. Magistrate Judge Francis granted Plaintiff two extensions of time to submit an opposition brief, but Plaintiff failed to submit one. On November 14, 2013, Magistrate Judge Francis held a hearing on Defendants' motion for summary judgment to clarify whether the information Defendants relied upon to arrest Plaintiff established probable cause. On December 13, 2013, Magistrate Judge Francis issued a Report & Recommendation ("R&R") recommending the Court grant Defendants' motion.
Plaintiff objects to Magistrate Judge Francis's R&R: (1) Plaintiff was prejudiced with respect to the November 14, 2013 hearing because he did not receive notice until one day prior and did not have enough time to prepare for cross-examination of witnesses; (2) the facts in the record do not support a finding of probable cause; and (3) the Defendants have not offered any evidence of communications between each other sufficient to show that their collective knowledge supported a finding of probable cause. Defendants urge the Court to adopt Magistrate Judge Francis's R&R.
For the reasons that follow, the Court adopts Magistrate Judge Francis's R&R in its entirety. Accordingly, the Court grants Defendants' motion for summary judgment.
I. Legal Standards
A. Review of Magistrate Judge Francis's R&R
In reviewing a report and recommendation, a court "may accept, reject, or modify, in whole or in part, the findings or recommendations made by the magistrate judge." 28 U.S.C. § 636(b)(1)(C). Where a party makes a timely written objection, the district court must review the contested issues de novo. See Arista Records LLC v. Doe, 604 F.3d 110, 116 (2d Cir. 2010) ("any part of the magistrate judge's recommendation that has been properly objected to must be reviewed by the district judge de novo."); Greene v. WCI Holdings Corp., 956 F.Supp. 509, 513 (S.D.N.Y. 1997). Nonetheless, where a party "makes only conclusory or general objections, or simply reiterates the original arguments, the Court will review the Report strictly for clear error." Pinkney v. Progressive Home Health Servs., No. 06 Civ. 5023 (LTS) (JCF), 2008 WL 2811816, at *1 (S.D.N.Y. July 21, 2008). "[E]ven a pro se party's objections to a Report and Recommendation must be specific and clearly aimed at particular findings in the magistrate's proposal, such that no party be allowed a second bite at the apple' by simply relitigating a prior argument." Id. (citation omitted)
B. Summary Judgment
Pursuant to Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, "[s]ummary judgment is appropriate when, construing the evidence in the light most favorable to the non-moving party, there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law.'" Rojas v. Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester, 660 F.3d 98, 104 (2d Cir. 2011) (quoting Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(a)). The moving party bears the initial burden of producing evidence on each material element of its claim demonstrating that it is entitled to relief. See Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323 (1986). Once the moving party has made an initial showing that no genuine dispute of material fact remains, the nonmoving party must present specific evidence in support of its contention that there is a genuine dispute as to material facts. Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c). Conclusory or speculative allegations, however, are insufficient. See Niagara Mohawk Power Corp v. Jones Chern., Inc., 315 F.3d 171, 175 (2d Cir. 2003). The Court must resolve all ambiguities and draw all factual inferences in favor of the nonmovant, but "only if there is a genuine' dispute as to those facts." Scott v. Harris, 550 U.S. 372, 380 (2007). The Court must "read [ pro se plaintiffs] supporting papers liberally, and... interpret them to raise the strongest arguments that they suggest.'" Perry v. Stephens, 659 F.Supp.2d 577 (S.D.N.Y. 2009) (quoting Burgos v. Hopkins, 14 F.3d 787, 790 (2d Cir. 1994)).
The Court has reviewed the record, including the parties' submissions, the R&R, and Plaintiffs objections. Because Plaintiff objects to specific factual findings in the ...