United States District Court, S.D. New York
Abdul Karim Hassan, ABDUL HASSAN LAW GROUP, PLLC, Queens, New York, for plaintiff.
Aislinn S. McGuire, Marjorie B. Kulak, KAUFF McGUIRE & MARGOLIS LLP, New York, New York, for defendants.
OPINION & ORDER
DENISE COTE, District Judge.
On February 14, 2014, defendants CompassRock Real Estate LLC ("CompassRock") and Resource Management, Inc. ("RMI") moved to dismiss plaintiff's retaliation claims under the Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA") and New York Labor Law ("NYLL"). For the reasons below, defendants' motion is granted as to the FLSA retaliation claim and denied as the NYLL retaliation claim.
Plaintiff Victor Payano ("Payano") makes the following allegations in his First Amended Complaint ("FAC"). For approximately three years, ending on October 28, 2013, Payano was employed to perform "a variety of maintenance work" in a residential apartment building located at 770 Garden Street in the Bronx (the "Garden Street Apartments"). He was "required to live in the building so that he could perform his job and respond more quickly to the needs of the building at all times." For the last eighteen months of his employment, defendant CompassRock was the managing agent of the Garden Street Apartments, and it employed defendant RMI to provide employee and payroll services. Both CompassRock and RMI were listed on Payano's paystubs as his employer.
Attached to the FAC is a "Notice and Acknowledgement of Pay Rate and Payday Under Section 195.1 of the New York State Labor Law, Notice for Hourly Rate Employees" (the "Notice of Pay Rate"). The Notice of Pay Rate states that it was prepared by Megan Smith, Payroll Director, and appears to be signed by Payano in the space for "Employee Signature." Payano's employer is identified as RMI. According to the Notice of Pay Rate, Payano's "Rate of pay" was $12.50 per hour and his "Overtime Pay Rate" was $18.75.
Payano alleges that he usually worked between 50 and 60 hours each week, and sometimes 70 or more hours in a given week, but was only paid for 40 hours. Payano attaches to the FAC timesheets he submitted to defendants for the weeks of March 25, April 1, and April 8, 2013, as well as several undated timesheets with fax cover sheets showing they were submitted in September and October 2013. These timesheets are divided into two sections: on the left, the employee is to report "Time In" and "Time Out" for each day of the week; on the right, the employer is to mark how many "Regular Hrs, " "Overtime Hrs, " "Sick Hrs, " "Vacation Hrs, " and "Holiday Hrs" the employee is given credit for on each day. On each of these timesheets, Payano reported working 70 hours or more, yet defendants gave Payano credit for only 8 "Regular Hrs" each weekday and no hours of any kind on weekends. Payano was responsible for faxing his timesheet, along with the timesheets of three other employees, to defendants each week. He was never reimbursed for the faxing charges he paid, which were approximately $4 each week.
In October 2013, defendants told Payano that he was required to sign an agreement entitled "Employee Occupancy Agreement" regarding Payano's occupancy of his apartment (the "Occupancy Agreement"). The Occupancy Agreement is attached to Payano's complaint. Among other things, it states that, "as part of the consideration for [Payano's] employment [he has] a revocable license to occupy" his apartment "for so long as [he is] an employee in good standing." The Occupancy Agreement also provides that Payano must vacate the apartment within three days of termination or be considered a holdover occupant responsible for the fair market rent of the apartment, and it requires that Payano waive trial by jury "in any action or proceeding arising out of, under or by virtue of the terms of [Payano's] occupancy of the apartment." Payano refused to sign.
Payano "complained... to defendants" both about being required to sign the Occupancy Agreement and about "[d]efendants' wage policy." In particular, Payano "objected and opposed in good faith... defendants' failure to pay him required overtime wages." On October 28, 2013, defendants "notified plaintiff that his employment with them was terminated because he opposed and complained about defendants' policy and refused to sign the proposed agreement."
On November 8, 2013, Payano brought the instant action. Payano filed the FAC on January 31, 2014, asserting four claims against defendants: (1) failure to pay overtime as required by the FLSA; (2) unpaid wages, under the NYLL; (3) retaliation under the FLSA; (4) retaliation under the NYLL. On February 14, defendants moved to dismiss Payano's retaliation claims. For the reasons set forth below, defendants' motion is granted as to Payano's FLSA retaliation claim and denied as to his NYLL retaliation claim.
When considering a motion to dismiss, a court must accept as true all allegations in the complaint and draw all reasonable inferences in the plaintiffs' favor. Keiler v. Harlequin Enters. Ltd, ___ F.3d ___, 2014 WL 1704474, at *3 (2d Cir. May 1, 2014). To survive a motion to dismiss, "a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face." Ashcroft v. Iqbal , 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009) (citation omitted). The court is "not bound to accept as true a legal conclusion couched as a factual allegation." Id . (citation omitted). Accordingly, a court may disregard "[t]hreadbare recitals of the elements of a cause of action, supported by mere conclusory statements." Id.
Applying the plausibility standard is "a context-specific task that requires the reviewing court to draw on its judicial experience and common sense." Id. at 679. "Plausibility depends on a host of considerations: the full factual picture presented by the complaint, the particular cause of action and its elements, and the existence of alternative explanations so obvious that they render plaintiff's inferences unreasonable." Fink v. Time Warner Cable , 714 F.3d 739, 741 (2d Cir. 2013) (citation omitted). Although the focus should be on the pleadings in considering a motion to dismiss, the court will deem the complaint to include "any written instrument attached to it as an exhibit, materials incorporated in it by ...