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Ferrarini v. Irgit

United States District Court, S.D. New York

January 9, 2020

MARIA SOLANGE FERRARINI, Plaintiff,
v.
IPEK IRGIT, et al., Defendants.

          OPINION AND ORDER

          LORNA G. SCHOFIELD, District Judge

         Plaintiff Maria Solange Ferrarini brings this action against Defendants Ipek Irgit and Kiini, LLC (collectively, the “Defendants”), alleging copyright infringement, 17 U.S.C. § 501; a violation of California's Unfair Competition law, California Business and Professions Code § 17200, et seq.; conversion and/or civil theft under California and New York common law; and intentional interference with prospective economic advantage. Defendants move to dismiss the Amended Complaint (the “Complaint”) under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6). For the following reasons, the motion is denied as to the copyright infringement claim, and granted as to the state law claims.

         I. BACKGROUND

         The following facts relevant to Defendants' motion are taken from the Complaint and supporting exhibits, and are accepted as true for purposes of this motion. See Hu v. City of New York, 927 F.3d 81, 88 (2d Cir. 2019) (“In deciding a Rule 12(b)(6) motion, the court may consider only the facts alleged in the pleadings, documents attached as exhibits or incorporated by reference in the pleadings[, ] and matters of which judicial notice may be taken.”) (internal quotation marks omitted).

         Plaintiff is an artisan living in Trancoso, Brazil. In 1998, Plaintiff created a design for hand knitted, colorful crochet bikinis and, since then, has sold these bikinis directly to the public. In 2012, Defendant Irgit purchased one of Plaintiff's bikinis. In 2013, Defendant Irgit founded Kiini, LLC and, in 2014, Defendants began manufacturing and selling bikinis using Plaintiff's design. In December 2014, Defendant Irgit registered Plaintiff's bikini design with the United States Copyright Office. The copyright listed Defendant Irgit as the author, and asserted January 30, 2013, as the date of first publication. Defendant Irgit subsequently assigned the copyright to Kiini, LLC. Defendants advertised and promoted the bikini through the Kiini, LLC website, and through numerous interviews in fashion and swimwear publications around the world. In these promotional interviews, Defendants falsely portrayed Defendant Irgit as the creator of the bikini design.

         In 2015, Defendant Irgit sued Victoria's Secret for infringing Defendant Irgit's purported bikini design. During that lawsuit, Victoria's Secret subpoenaed individuals in Kiini, LLC's manufacturing and production chain, including Sally Wu. In 2012, Defendant Irgit had emailed Ms. Wu to inquire about potential production of Plaintiff's bikini design, and had attached images of Plaintiff's bikini to the email. The images revealed Plaintiff's actual signature and phone number on the waistline of the bikini bottom. In an attempt to obstruct Ms. Wu's cooperation with the subpoena, Defendant Irgit instructed Ms. Wu not to reveal the bikini was a duplication of Plaintiff's design, and offered to take Ms. Wu and three of her friends on a trip anywhere in the world if Kiini, LLC won its lawsuit against Victoria's Secret. Ms. Wu never received a copy of the subpoena, and Defendants secured a settlement with Victoria's Secret.

         In early 2018, Defendant Irgit sued two smaller swimsuit manufacturers. The CEO of one of companies was able to locate Plaintiff in Trancoso, Brazil. Plaintiff subsequently sought counsel and brought this lawsuit. After Plaintiff secured a United States copyright registration, Plaintiff amended the complaint on April 17, 2019, to include a copyright infringement claim.

         II. STANDARD

         To survive a motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6), “a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to ‘state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.'” Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009) (quoting Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 570 (2007)). “A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged.” Id. (citing Twombly, 550 U.S. at 556). It is not enough for a plaintiff to allege facts that are consistent with liability; the complaint must “nudge[]” claims “across the line from conceivable to plausible.” Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570. “To survive dismissal, the plaintiff must provide the grounds upon which his claim rests through factual allegations sufficient to raise a right to relief above the speculative level.” Lanier v. Bats Exch., Inc., 838 F.3d 139, 150 (2d Cir. 2016). On a Rule 12(b)(6) motion, “all factual allegations in the complaint are accepted as true and all inferences are drawn in the plaintiffs favor.” Apotex Inc. v. Acorda Therapeutics, Inc., 823 F.3d 51, 59 (2d Cir. 2016).

         III. DISCUSSION

         A. The Copyright Claim is Not Barred by the Statute of Limitations

         Defendants argue that the Complaint's copyright claim is time barred. “Although the statute of limitations is ordinarily an affirmative defense that must be raised in the answer, a statute of limitations defense may be decided on a Rule 12(b)(6) motion if the defense appears on the face of the complaint.” Thea v. Kleinhandler, 807 F.3d 492, 501 (2d Cir. 2015); accord Wei Su v. Sotheby's, Inc., No. 17 Civ. 4577, 2019 WL 4917609, at *2 (S.D.N.Y. Oct. 4, 2019).

         The threshold question for this analysis is the type of claim brought -- ownership or infringement -- because the type of claim determines how the statute of limitations is applied. If the claim is one of ownership, the copyright claim must be brought “within three years after the claim accrued.” 17 U.S.C. § 507(b)); see Wilson v. Dynatone Publ'g Co., 892 F.3d 112, 118 (2d Cir. 2018). “[A]n infringement action may be commenced within three years of any infringing act, regardless of any prior acts of infringement; . . . the three-year limitations period . . . bar[s] only recovery for infringing acts occurring outside the three-year period.” Kwan v. Schlein, 634 F.3d 224, 228 (2d Cir. 2011). Where “the ownership claim is time-barred, and ownership is the dispositive issue, any attendant infringement claims must fail.” Id. at 230.

         Here, Defendants are correct that Plaintiff brings an ownership claim. However, because it is not apparent on the face of the Complaint that the claim accrued more than three years before Plaintiff brought ...


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